The 19th century was a period of great change and upheaval in Europe. Political, social and economic forces brought about revolutionary new ideas and philosophies in virtually all areas of human endeavour, including the fine arts. This was also true for the 19th century paintings which saw many changes influenced by political, social and economic events that took place during this period. The 19th century paintings included the romantic era, realism and impressionism. The Romantic Era: In art, there was a movement during the 19th century called Romanticism. It was an anti-classical movement that favoured imagination over observation and poetry over science. Some of the major painters from this period include Francisco Goya, Charles-Augustin Sainte–Beauveant, J.M.W. Turner and John Constable. Realism: Within the Impressionist movement there was a movement called Realism. This was a reaction against Romanticism, which favoured imagination over observation and poetry over science. One of the leading painters from this period is Gustave Courbet. Impressionism: Impressionism is a style of painting that can be characterized by the use of quick brush strokes and the use of vibrant colors. It is a style that is less concerned with the precision of details in favour of capturing a sense of atmosphere and spontaneity.