Post-Impressionism was a late 19th century art movement, primarily developed by artists in France. It was a reaction against Impressionism. The term Post-Impressionism first appeared after the exhibition held by Les Indépendants in 1884, and was to distinguish this more radical style from the pre-existing movement with which it had an overlapping membership. For painters like Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cezanne, or Paul Gauguin, their art was a brush with the new reality of modern life. This movement developed in an era that witnessed huge philosophical and social changes including revolutions, the industrial revolution and advancements in science. Post impressionist art is characterized by striking color, bold composition and often symbolic imagery. The paintings tried to convey a sense of emotional experience. Post-Impressionism is among the first truly modern movements in art, and it was also one of the first conscious efforts to create a new style that departed from European traditions and influences. The name of the movement comes from a book written by Louis Leroy, called "Les Indépendants", which is where the term post impressionism arose from. Post-impressionist artists used vivid and sometimes garish colors to instill intense emotion in their audiences. They often painted landscapes with an emphasis on changing weather conditions and natural light. The Post-Impressionists rejected the idea of painting in their studios, choosing instead to paint out-of-doors like realists. In order to better capture changing lights and color effects, they often painted quickly with large brush strokes while studying nature. Th Post-Impressionist painters were among the first modern artists to paint realistic scenes of everyday life. The inspiration for Post-Impressionist art came primarily from the French countryside. They painted landscapes near Paris and in faraway places like Provence, Côte d'Azur and Brittany, seeking inspiration from fresh air outside the city. Many of the artists were also inspired by the works of Vincent van Gogh, and his sincerity in painting everyday objects. This was a radical departure from traditional art practices, and it brought Post-Impressionism to the front of general consciousness. The painters used bright colors not traditionally seen together, with impasto creating texture and broken color to convey a sense of spontaneity and emotion. They also used intense, unnatural color juxtapositions that were not afraid to go outside the boundaries of traditional painting conventions. The combination of colors was chosen specifically for their expressive qualities. This is in opposition to the Impressionists' technique, which involved building up layers of thin paint to achieve a more realistic, less expressive effect. The Post-Impressionists were very critical of Impressionism in their day. However, some critics have seen certain similarities between the two movements. Both rejected realism as a representational artistic technique and both believed that artists should invest more time studying nature to be able to capture its full range of details in their artwork.